The MICS methodological papers series is intended to facilitate the exchange of knowledge and stimulate discussion on methodological issues related to the development of standard survey tools and protocols, and the collection and analysis of MICS data.
This paper describes the validation of the Foundational Learning Skills (FLS) module, a newly developed instrument in the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). The focus of this study is the concurrent validity of the FLS instrument, which was administered to children aged 7 to 14 in Kenya, along with the Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) and Early Grade Mathematics Assessment (EGMA) tools. Evidence on the reliability of the instrument – such as inter-rater reliability and Cronbach’s alpha – was also obtained.
This report shares experiences, methodology, challenges and considerations, and recommendations that led to the development and testing of a set of social protection questions for inclusion in household surveys. The development drew on elements of social protection programmes as defined by UNICEF’s Social Protection Strategic Framework (2), namely, support for education among children of school-going age, and health insurance coverage. This document will focus on the methodological approach and main findings in the four pilot countries (Kenya, Zimbabwe, Viet Nam, and Belize), and will reference individual country reports for country-specific experiences.
MICS has developed an oversampling strategy to compensate for low sample sizes of children under-five in low fertility countries. The purpose of this study is to examine how the oversampling strategy has worked in different settings. In this report, we outline the implementation of the oversampling strategy, comparing the results across several countries. The results of this study will be used to develop guidelines for countries planning to use the oversampling approach.
This report documents the development and validation of the Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI). The ECDI is one of the first population-based measures of early childhood development available at an internationally comparative level. It has been incorporated into around 80 national and subnational MICS in low- and middle-income countries since its introduction.
There is a growing demand for data reflecting quality as well as access to education, particularly in the early years where learning outcomes are an important foundation for later progress. This paper examines the development of two new MICS modules: Parental Involvement (PR) and Foundational Learning skills (FL). These are areas where data are currently lacking, particularly in low-income countries, leading to a call for the development of new tools and, in particular strong support, for household survey based approaches.
The analysis presented in this report is intended to assist the JMP and UNICEF to gain a better understanding of how best to use the wealth index to help monitor inequalities in access to water, sanitation and hygiene in line with the Sustainable Development Goals. It focuses specifically on the classic wealth index, involving a single principal component analysis (PCA) estimate over the whole sample, leaving to further research such issues as the composite wealth index and the production of separate indices for urban and rural areas.
Using DHS data, we examine rates of twinning and multiple births in a number of countries and then estimate if the exclusion of twin births impacts low birth weight estimates. We also examine if the reference period and subset of births (all vs last births in a time period) used in the two survey programmes causes any differences in estimates.
Since the inception of MICS in the mid-1990s, no one document consolidated how MICS has developed and evolved over time. In this publication, we examine the rationale and activities of the first surveys and how these laid the foundation for the MICS programme. Through a thematic lens, this publication charts the key elements of the MICS programme and recounts the achievements and value of MICS. In the changing data-landscape of a post MDG era, we also examine the strategic role of MICS in future monitoring activities.
Indicators related to hazardous unpaid household services performed by children are analysed in an attempt to develop a new child labour definition for use in MICS surveys. Data from 16 low- and middle-income countries are used for the analyses.
This study aims to contribute to the development of a new child labour module in line with international standards on the measurement of employment and child labour, which can be used in household surveys such as MICS. Analyses using data from child labour surveys in 8 countries are performed in three main areas: questions on employment to measure the number of working children, questions on possible hazards children face at work, and questions on unpaid household activities.